Content: The importance of business excellence through quality management. Analysis of mission statements in terms of quality policy. Comparison of the different model approaches of quality management. Overview of the system according to ISO9001 and the TQM philosophy in the sense of the EFQM model (Business Excellence).
Introduction: TQM is a corporate philosophy that should be lived from the core of the company. Whoever is committed to TQM changes the basic attitude in the company. This change will take time and resources, but will bring about long-term improvement.
What does TQM mean ?: The core message is simple and understandable for everyone, because TQM means nothing else than living our mission statement. But what does that mean specifically? TQM means total quality management and means comprehensive quality management within a company. It is the cornerstone so that employees perceive quality as a system goal and guarantee it accordingly. It covers all areas of the organization so that organizing or controlling activities meet the quality standard.
What are the principles of the TQM ?: A philosophy entails principles and values. So that the principles can be explained, one should first deal with the concept of quality per se. If one asks the question of what is understood by quality, the view is broad: some see a consistent price / performance ratio, while others focus more on meeting expectations and meeting demands. Still others focus on the fact that the lifespan is long or that the product works perfectly. Yes, the customer just wanted the value proposition to be kept while maintaining a certain level, one could say that a constant further development is guaranteed, with constantly changing standards. And, of course, the processing must not be neglected. TQM is dedicated to this vigilance because it focuses on the customer. It optimizes processes and integrates employees equally, so that all dimensions that have to be operationalized by differently defined criteria meet the expected standard. Active action on the part of the company management and its subordinate departments is required, because the TQM is a process that lasts forever and has no end.
What is ISO9001: 2015 and how are such standards read ?: The TQM is a management standard and the ISO9001: 2015 par excellence. Since 1987, ISO 9001 has been the most important and best-known standard in the world. More than 1 million companies were certified according to this standard, for many the certification was an important component in order to survive on the market.
How is such a norm read? Let's take the example: SN-EN-ISO9001-2015, where SN also means Swiss standard, EN stands for European standard and the abbreviation ISO is the international standard. ISO is the first milestone on the TQM path.
The companies have changed a lot, because in the past few years, with Manager Generation 2.0, attempts were made to meet the minimal requirements. While more and more emphasis is being placed on exceeding basic requirements and profiling oneself with impeccable quality. The swift of meeting the minimum requirements up to a strong emphasis on the topic of employee orientation and social responsibility is sometimes strongly shaped by the EFQM, which advertised the European Quality Award in 1992, which paid special attention to these two subject areas. More on that later.
Advantages of TQM ?: - Includes environmental, cultural, social issues and the interests of stakeholders. - Allows a comparison with other companies through the point evaluation, so that quality prizes can be awarded and standards are set fairly. - In the area of sustainability, the requirement is that the values must be achieved over several years, so that it is not possible to cheat here - Checks actually achieved values and does not only consider the suitability of the processes. This means that products, processes and tasks are checked in detail.
Who has shaped TQM ?: The first TQM model was developed by the American statistician W.E. Deming and the Japanese pioneers Ishiro Ishikawa and Taiichi Ohno developed. The first approaches were already in the 1950s. Deming is known for the 14 management principles, the PDCA cycle (plan-implement-test-improve) and the Deming reaction chain, and focused on statistical process control. Juran coined the term Juran triology: quality planning, quality control and quality improvement. His focus was on quality management. Juran especially trained the Japanese top and middle management. Because with this concept he met with little enthusiasm in the USA, which is why the transfer of know-how to Japan was indispensable for him. It took Japan 20 years for Juran's training to pay off, becoming a global leader in quality in the 1970s, also known as the Japanese economic miracle. The USA, on the other hand, had great difficulty in meeting quality standards from the 1980s.
What is good to know ?: The majority of the errors that occur in the production process occur before the manufacturing phase. However, most errors are only discovered after the manufacturing phase. So managers should focus on not looking at costs in isolation that are related to the mistakes already made. But ideally include costs from the outset, so that the perfect approach to reducing costs results. The conclusion is: An investment in measures with a preventive effect pays off when considering the total costs for mistakes made, so that managers can take clever preventive measures. Classic Q costs start in production, but in principle many other jobs in a company are prone to errors:
- Human resources: change of employees, absences - Warehouse: inventory differences, depreciation, liquidations / store keepers - Administration: changes, re-written documents - Sales: budget deviations, guarantees, price reductions - Marketing: market acceptance, market share, time to market - Development: changes, undesirable developments, series support - AVOR: Planned surplus, rewritten orders, changes - Production: scrap, production-related waste, rework, waiting times, Excesses
What quality prizes are there ?:
- Deming Prize (Japan) - Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award (USA) - European Quality Award (Europe)
The TQM models in comparison:
What are the different phases in introducing TQM ?: Phase 1: Sensitization => 0.5 to 2 years => change in awareness Phase 2: Realization => 0.5 - 1.5 years => leadership & structural change Phase 3: Stabilization => 1 - 2 years => networking of all individual measures Phase 4: Excellence => Adjustment of the individual TQM processes as required
The most important thing again at the end: Don't forget to live your mission statement at TQM!
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